Phonics & fluency have a cause & effect relationship. When students can effortlessly decode words on the run while reading, they are said to be fluent, or, read with fluency. A fluent reader can read accurately, automatically & words are already orthographically mapped, fluent readers don’t have to decode everything. Saying that fluency is only about rate & speed is like saying being healthy only means you run marathons…being healthy is so much more than that, and several variables lead to being healthy…and fluent. When students are not reading with fluency it's a phonics red flag, an indicator in which a teacher must work to diagnose. Disfluency can be due to a variety of reasons: